The epistemological theory that noetic (belief) structures include two types of justified belief: (1) properly basic beliefs, which confer epistemic justification on other beliefs, but do not require it themselves, and (2) properly non-basic beliefs, which derive their epistemic justification from an appropriate doxastic/discursive relation to properly basic beliefs (for example, deduction). As such, foundationalism is an affirmation that the chain of epistemic justification must be finite (pace infinitism) and that some beliefs are not justified by other beliefs (pace coherentism). In popular parlance 'foundationalism' is often used to refer to one historically influential and particularly contentious subset of foundationalist theories derived from Descartes and Locke. This theory, more properly called 'classical' or 'strong' foundationalism, demands that all properly basic beliefs be self-evident, evident to the senses, or incorrigible. While classical foundationalism has long been taken (though not by Descartes and Locke) to deny rationality to religious beliefs, consistent application of its overly rigorous criteria would also undermine the rationality of most other putative sources of basic belief including memory and testimony. Classical foundationalism has been dogged by the problem of self-referential defeat since the proposition that 'all justified beliefs are self-evident, evident to the senses, or incorrigible or derived from beliefs that are' does not itself meet these criteria: hence, if classical foundationalism is true, we are not justified in believing it. Some philosophers (for example, Richard Rorty) take the failure of classical foundationalism as warrant to reject all forms of foundationalism. In contrast, many others (for example, Alvin Goldman, Ernest Sosa and Alvin Plantinga) have in recent years developed modest forms of foundationalism that retain the distinction between properly basic and non-basic beliefs, while broadening the criteria for proper basicality to something more closely approximating our common-sense intuitions.
   Further reading: Audi 2003; DePaul 2001; Rockmore 2004

Christian Philosophy . . 2015.

Игры ⚽ Нужен реферат?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Foundationalism — is any theory in epistemology (typically, theories of justification, but also of knowledge) that holds that beliefs are justified (known, etc.) based on what are called basic beliefs (also commonly called foundational beliefs). Basic beliefs are… …   Wikipedia

  • foundationalism — The view in epistemology that knowledge must be regarded as a structure raised upon secure, certain foundations. These are found in some combination of experience and reason, with different schools ( empiricism, rationalism ) emphasizing the role …   Philosophy dictionary

  • foundationalism — In epistemology, the view that some beliefs can justifiably be held directly (e.g., on the basis of sense perception or rational intuition) and not by inference from other justified beliefs. Other types of beliefs (e.g., beliefs about material… …   Universalium

  • foundationalism — noun The doctrine that beliefs derive justification from certain basic beliefs See Also: foundationalist …   Wiktionary

  • Foundationalism — any justification or knowledge theory in epistemology that holds that beliefs are justified (known) when they are based on basic beliefs (also called foundational beliefs). Basic beliefs are beliefs that are self justifying or self evident, and… …   Mini philosophy glossary

  • foundationalism — / fundamentalist  Фундаментализм1,2 …   Вестминстерский словарь теологических терминов

  • Anti-foundationalism — (also called nonfoundationalism) as the name implies, is a term applied to any philosophy which rejects a foundationalist approach, i.e. an anti foundationalist is one who does not believe that there is some fundamental belief or principle which… …   Wikipedia

  • foundation — foundationalism …   Philosophy dictionary

  • Foundationalist — foundationalism …   Philosophy dictionary

  • foundationalist — foundationalism …   Philosophy dictionary

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”